If one day was called MMA, MMA (stands for mixed martial arts) today has several rules that make it impossible to use the old name to the letter. The "transformation" was starting at the beginning of last decade, when the athletic commissions in the United States began to develop a set of rules. Until 2005, the state of California officially sanctioned the sport, taking advantage of a work of Nevada. Since then, commissions of other states have adopted these standards, ranging from determining compliance and width of the fighting area, define the weight of gloves, as well as decide the limits of actions of the fighters in the fighting.
The UFC needs to follow the rules of the states that will hold an event. Outside the United States, the Ultimate also have to submit to local legislation. But there were few times we had trouble. As at UFC 97, when the athletic commission in Quebec, Canada, wanted to veto the elbows and knees, and it was also open to protective count after knockdowns. Organizers of the Ultimate edition only able to perform after long negotiations.
Also up was the time of David duels x Goliath. Nowadays, there are nine categories of weight MMA, ranging from flies (up to 56.7 kg) at superheavy (above 120kg). However, the UFC still has neither the heaviest. The fighters need reach the limit of their categories in weighing, taking place the day before the fight, and there is a tolerance of a pound, about 450g.No set of rules used by the UFC, competitors must wear gloves that weigh about four ounces (113g). Some slightly heavier can be used, but if they are approved by the committee. The fighters are prohibited from using any type of shirt or shoes during fights. And the shorts also have to be approved by the athletic commission. Moreover, they are required to wear a mouthguard and jockstrap, which protects the genital region.
If by chance the athlete is overweight, the commission may allow execution of combat, since it considers that this can still be "fair, safe and competitive." In such cases, the fighters often fined by the event.
The fighting in the UFC are played over three rounds. The exception is the title fights and fights ending the event, which can go up to five.
With fighting ongoing, there are dozens of items that are considered failures (see list at end of article). All these restrictions are evaluated solely by the referee which is inside the fighting area. He is the only one authorized to stop the fight to warn, penalize competitors with loss of point or even disqualify them.
Two current UFC champions, for example, were victims of cartels and fouled their disqualification for acting against the rule. The holder of the heavyweight belt, Jon Jones, has only a setback in his career: all because he applied an illegal elbow on Matt Hamill in December 2009. Since Anderson Silva hit a "pedaling" on Yushin Okami while the Japanese had fours on the ground in 2006, and had also decreed defeat. It was the last of the Spider, which until now had avenged themselves upon Okami at UFC 134 in Rio
From the outside, the combat is evaluated by three judges, who are not in the UFC, but the athletic commissions. They should stay in different places, assessing the aggressiveness in the exchange of blows, attempts to control the area and finishing the fight. The trio can not take into consideration in judging the round, some punishment, with the loss of points, the referee assessed to be unnecessary.
Jurors have to score the round as follows: 10 to 9 when a fighter winning by a slight advantage; 10-8 if the winner within five minutes has great advantage, and 10-7 overall domain if one of the fighters. There is also the possibility of a tie (10-10), when there is complete balance, but jurors to avoid maximum enact equality.
As the judgment is subjective, fights that end up in the hands of jurors often end in controversy, generating discussion among fans and giving even more spice to the sport.
Check out what is considered missing within the rules used by the UFC:
- Give headbutt
- Apply any kind of coup that put the finger in the eye
- Spitting at opponent
- Pull the hair
- Grab the mouth
- Attacking the genital region
- Handle small joints
- Striking with the elbow from the top down
- Striking the spine or the back of the head
- Crash kidney with the heel
- To strike or hold the throat
- Gripping, pinching or twisting the flesh or skin
- Grabbing the clavicle
- Kicking the head of a fallen opponent
- Apply kneeing the head of a fallen rival
- Stepping on a fallen opponent
- Hold the grid
- Holding the shorts or gloves of the opponent
- Using abusive language in the fighting area
- Use unsportsmanlike conduct that may cause damage to opponent
- Attacking an opponent in range
- Attacking an opponent when he is under the care of the referee
- Attacking an opponent after the bell has touched the end of the round
- Timidity, including, without limitation, avoiding contact or drop the mouthguard intentionally and consistently, or faking injury
- Throwing an opponent out of the fighting area
- Disregarding the instructions given by the referee
- Throwing an opponent against the canvas on his head or spine
- Take help of team members
- Apply any foreign substance on hair or body to gain an advantage